E-mail Accessibility, a comprehensive list of connectivity by
country, maintained by Olivier Crepin-Leblond. He has recently created
a series of maps charting the worldwide spread of the Internet since
Startup Resource Center.
International Internet Connectivity Map and the data
listed by country (version 15, as of 15/6/96). Produced by
Larry Landweber, Computer Science Department, University of Wisconsin -
Madison, USA. Previous versions from 1991 onwards are available at ftp://ftp.cs.wisc.edu/connectivity_table/
- Goodman S.E. et al, 1994, "The Global
Diffusion of the Internet : Patterns and Problems", Communications
of the ACM, August 1994, Vol. 37, No. 8, pages 27-31.
- Press L. & Rodriguez L.,
"Towards an Internet Census for Developing Nations", Proceedings
of INET'96 Conference, 24-28th June 1996, Montreal, Canada.
- The World
Link : Network Society Index, a composite index and map of
the "wired 'ness" of different counties, based on a range of computing,
telecoms and networking indicators, such as PCs and Internet hosts per
Data for Africa's Info Infrastructure, comprehensive and up
to date information maintained by Mike Jensen. It includes a nice
clickable map of the countries in African.
Africa Internet - Status Report, by Mike Jensen, May 2001.
to Connect, WIRED (August 1997, pages 106-107), by Leila
Conners. A global map showing the level of freedom to connect to the
Internet at a national level.
Connectivity in Africa, a report by Mike Jensen, January
1998. Also available, tables of African Internet
Density and Internet
Users by country.
- The Mosaic Group are undertaking the Global Diffusion
of the Internet Project to measure and analyze the growth of
the Internet throughout the world. Since the project started in 1997
over thirty countries have been analysed.
- The "Digital
Divide" in the USA. Reports on the penetration of information
infrastructure (telephones, computers and modems) in the USA by the
National Telecommunications & Information Administration
- Hargittai E., 1998, "Holes
in the Net: The Internet and International Stratification", INET'98:
The Internet Summit, 21-24th July 1998, Geneva, Switzerland.
Wired World Atlas, by Leila Conners Petersen, Wired,
Vol. 6.11, November 1998. The article "Envision the globe according to
the density of traditional media - TVs and telephones - and you get a
brand-new map." (Unfortunately, the actual cartogram map is not online.)
- Holderness M., 1997, "The
Internet: enabling whom, when and where?", paper presented at
a United Nations University INTECH seminar in Maastricht.
Counts: Measuring the Impacts of the Internet, by Office
of International Affairs, National Research Council,
Washington DC, 1998.
- Daly J.A., 1999, "Measuring
Impacts of the Internet in the Developing World", IMP
Magazine, May 1999.
- Press L., Foster W.A., & Goodman
S.E., 1999, "The
Internet in India and China", paper presented at the INET'99
Conference, 22-25th June, San Jose, California.
- Press L., Foster W.A., & Goodman
S.E., 1999, "Surveying
the Global Diffusion of the Internet", paper presented at the
INET'99 Conference, 22-25th June, San
- Uimonen P., 1999, "Connecting
Laos: Notes from the Peripheries of Cyberspace", paper
presented at the INET'99 Conference, 22-25th June,
San Jose, California.
- Petrazzini B. & Kibati M.,
Internet in Developing Countries", Communications
of the ACM, June 1999, Vol. 42, No. 6, pages 31-36.
- The Human
Development Report, 1999, by the UN Development Programme,
has useful information and statistics on the global diffusion of the
Internet. Chapter two of the report, New
technologies and the global race for knowledge is
- Hargittai E., 1999, "Weaving
the Western Web: Explaining Differences in Internet Connectivity Among
OECD Countries", Telecommunications Policy,
Vol. 23, No. 10/11, November/December 1999.
- The December 1999 issue of Information
Impacts (iMP) Magazine has a series of articles examining
issues of "Access:
Where, Who, How, Why?".
- Africa.com: Continental Shift, Wired
Magazine, July 2000, page 137-138.
- Press, L., 2000, "The
State of the Internet: Growth and Gaps", paper presented at
the INET 2000 Conference, 18-21th July 2000,
- Ein-Dor P., Goodman S.E., & Wolcott
P., 2000, "From Via
Maris to Electronic Highway: The Internet In Canaan",
Communications of the ACM, July 2000, Vol.
43, No. 7, pages 19-23.
- Minges M., 2001, "Internet
Around the World", poster presented at the INET 2001
Conference, 5-8th June 2001, Stockholm, Sweden.
- Martin F., 2001, "Status
of the Internet in Pacific Island Countries", paper presented
at the INET 2001 Conference, 5-8th June 2001,
- Paltridge S., 2000, "Local
Access Pricing and the International Digital Divide", OnTheInternet,
- Pelletiere D. & Rodrigo G.C.,
Empirical Investigation of the Digital Divide in the United States",
paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on
Technology, Policy and Innovation, 26-29th June 2001,
Netherlands. (Word doc format)
- Press, L., 2001, "Surveying
the Latin American Infrastructure", in Treverton G.F. and
Mizell L. (eds.) The Future of the Information Revolution In
Latin America, RAND, Santa Monica, CA, 2001.
- Press L., Foster W., Wolcott P. and McHenry
W., 2002, "The
Internet in India and China", First Monday,
October 2002, Vol. 7, No. 10.
- RAND, 2002, "Poor
connections: Trouble on the Internet frontiers", RAND
Review, vol 12, fall 2002.
- Cukier K.N., 2000, "The Imperial
Internet: Middle Eastern Internet Traffic and International Relations",
CAINET'00 Conference, Cairo, March 2000.
- Chen W. and Wellman B. 2003, Charting
and Bridging Digital Divides Comparing Socio-economic, Gender, Life
Stage, and Rural-Urban Internet Access and Use in Eight Countries.
A report by NetLab, Centre for Urban and Community Studies, University
of Toronto for AMD Global Consumer Advisory Board, October 2003.
- Hundley, R.O. Anderson, R.H., Bikson, T.K.,
and Neu C.R. 2003, The
Global Course of the Information Revolution: Recurring Themes and
Regional Variations, MR-1680-NIC, RAND.