Atlas of Cyberspaces. An atlas showing the best maps and
graphic representations of the Internet, WWW and Cyberspaces (updated
with new maps on 4th February 2004). [European
mirror site] [Italian
language mirror site] [French
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- Mapping Cyberspace,
an academic book by Martin Dodge and Rob Kitchin (Routledge, 2000).
- Atlas of Cyberspace,
a full colour, 'coffee-table' style book by Martin Dodge and Rob
Kitchin (Addison-Wesley, 2001).
Netsystems (formerly Matrix Information and Directory Services (MIDS),
leaders in mapping networks and Internet demographics.
- publishes Matrix Maps Quarterly and Matrix news,
allows your to run traceroute interactively from their web site.
Resulting traceroutes are presented as detailed geographical maps,
tables and graphs.
- also the home of Internet cartographer John S. Quarterman.
Name to Latitude/Longitude Converter, developed by Stephen
Lamm, University of Urbana-Champaign, USA.
Study of the NSFNET, undertaken by Donna Cox and Robert
Patterson, in 1992, at the National Center for Supercomputing
Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.
The Internet, (1995) by Dave Jevans.
Multicast : Visualization of the Mbone, (1996) by T. Munzner,
K. Claffy, B. Fenner and E. Hoffman.
Planet Cache: Visualization of the NLANR Caching Hierarchy,
(1996) by T. Munzner, E. Hoffman and K. Claffy.
A collection of images charting cyberspace. Produced by December
Geographic Conceptualization of Cyberspace, by Masanao
Takeyama (in Japanese).
Locations into the DNS: An Overview by Christopher Davis.
This provides information to support RFC 1876, which aims to add
geographical location details to the Domain Name System (DNS).
- The ISO
Country Codes used as top level domain name designations on
- A clickable map of European
Internet Exchange Points, produced by Ole Carsten. Also,
check out Bill Manning's comprehensive list of Internet Exchange Points
all around the world.
an excellent tool for mapping the infrastructure of multiple Internet
backbone providers on a geographical base at global and continental
scale. It is an interactive, Java-based, tool developed by CAIDA - Cooperative Association
for Internet Data Analysis. Detailed infrastructure
information for over thirty commercial and research & education
networks can be mapped. The Java source code and map data are also
Psiber SPACE (circa 1986), a pseudo-scientific visualisation
of the ARPANET by Ron Hopkins.
Topology of Large Internetworks, a research project in
College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
Maps, a range of diagrams and maps tracking the global
development of the 6Bone, by the IPv6 Resource
Centre at the Computing Department, Lancaster University, UK.
The 6Bone is an experimental international IPv6 testbed network. IPv6
is the next generation of Internet addressing and routing.
a neat traceroute utility, that will try to map the resulting traces on
a global map. Also, see the excellent Web version VisualRoute AutoWeb
the Geography of Internet Address Space, research by Martin
Dodge and Narushige Shiode in the geography of ownership of blocks of
Internet (IP) addresses in the United Kingdom.
Cyberspace, a research project by Dawn Leeder, University of
a host's geographical location by Uri Raz. A useful technical
note on methods of determining an Internet host's geographical
- A couple of useful Web sites that allow you to runs
traceroutes from different locations on the global Internet. Traceroute.org,
lists Web traceroute servers by country; it is maintained by Thomas
Kernen. Also, try the Multiple
Traceroute Gateway which allows you to run several traces in
Geography Project by Matthew Zook. Also see his his various
the geography of domain names.
- The Internet
Mapping Project, by Bill Cheswick and Hal Burch. The project
began at Bell Labs and one of their early maps was featured in Wired
Magazine (December 1998, page 216-217). The technology is
being commercially developed by Lumeta.
Cyberspace with GIS, by Paul Terpstra, Office of Mines and
Minerals of the Illinois Department of Natural Resources, paper at the
1998 ESRI User Conference.
- The Global Web
Explorer, a comprehensive listing of Web sites for all
countries and territories around the world, including many remote
places. Maintained by Robert S. Duggan and Steven H. Gibbs.
- The Technology
Atlas for Pennsylvania, interactive maps of digital
infrastructure in considerable detail, including fibre-optic networks
and microwave towers. Developed and maintained by the Technology
Assessment and Documentation Group, at the University of Pittsburgh.
- A nice geographical traceroute applications called Neotrace from
- Caida are developing a new geographical traceroute
application called GTrace.
- A lengthy discussion on the theme of Mapping
the Internet at Slashdot from September
- Interactive maps of African
Internet connectivity and performance from August 1998
created by Nemo Semret, Columbia University.
- The SCAN
project by Ramesh Govindan and colleagues at the Information
Sciences Institute, undertaking robust distribute mapping of large
networks, including the Internet. See their paper for background
for Internet Map Discovery", Technical Report 99-717,
Computer Science Department, University of Southern California.
- The NetGeo
service offers an Internet Geographic Database. This provides a
latitude and longitude for key Internet identifiers such as IP
addresses, domain names and AS numbers. It is being developed by Caida.
Also, see, Moore, D. et al.,
in the World is netgeo.caida.org?", paper presented at the INET
2000 Conference, 18-21th July 2000, Yokohama, Japan.
- Three different projects mapping the "geography" of
/ IP-chronography project, described as a "metalinguistic
code and interactive representation of Internet-space". Created Sergey
de Rocambol, Anna Nikolayeva, Ilya Komarov (the author of program
- The 1:1project
by Lisa Jevbratt, C5. This provides several distinct
interfaces/visualization of IP address space (hierarchical, every,
petri and random).
Address Space Utilization, by Sean McCreary and kc claffy at
Caida. Aims to give a visual answer to the key question, "How much of
the Internet address space is used?"
- Telegeography's Internet Exchange
Point directory. Comprehensive listing of over 2000 exchange
points, broken down by region.
- A geographical list of web traceroute
servers for countries and US states maintained by Rafael
- A Cybergeography
project in Germany, by Inga Klas.
- The proposal to create a .geo top-level domain name
being developed by SRI International. This could be potentially very
useful for mapping the Internet as well as mapping any information on
the Web. They argue .geo will "provides an open and scalable
infrastructure to index, discover, and serve any information on the web
based upon the latitude-longitude location of the data being referred
- A number of companies are developing so called
geo-location services which allow Web users to be pin-pointed by their
location. Some of the key players are:
the Net: Revenge of the Physical World", by Kevin Werbach, Release
1.0, 29th May 2001, Vol. 19, No. 5, pages 1-20 (full article
requires subscription). This useful article discusses many of the
issues concerning the significance of grounding the Internet to
real-world geography, including a review of the new IP geo-location
- A geographic
directory of reverse traceroute servers and 'looking glass'
servers across the world maintained by CAIDA.
- The Oregon
Telecommunications Atlas, by Sam Churchill, provides a
comprehensive review of the geography of all telecommunications
infrastructure in the state. It was compiled at the end of 2000. The
Atlas is "a preliminary survey of data compiled from a variety
of trade publications and Internet resources. This report has six
parts, (1) a broad narrative overview of telecommunications and Oregon
anecdotes, (2) Telecommunications facilities by city, (3) County
inventory - mostly cell tower locations in lat/long, (4) Oregon maps of
cell and fiber infrastructure, (5) Oregon Radio and Television
broadcasters, (6) Reference links."
research by Venkata N. Padmanabhan, at Microsoft Research.
For details see the research paper, "An
Investigation of Geographic Mapping Techniques for Internet Hosts",
by V.N. Padmanabhan & L. Subramanian. Proceedings
of ACM SIGCOMM 2001, San Diego, USA, August 2001.
- Ding, J., Gravano, L., & Shivakumar,
N., 2000, "Computing
Geographical Scopes of Web Resources". Proceedings
of the 26th Very-Large Database (VLDB) Conference, Cairo,
- McCurley, K.S., 2001, "Geospatial
Mapping and Navigation of the Web". Paper presented at WWW10
Conference, 1-5th May 2001, Hong Kong.
a Perl module for mapping IP addresses to countries. Developed by T.J.
- Danesh, A., Rubin, S.H., Smith, M.H. and
Trajkovic, L., 2001, "Mapping
the Internet", paper presented at IFSA/NAFIPS 2001,
July 2001, Vancouver, Canada.
Topology Project, useful research by Ramesh Govindan and
colleagues in the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
Science, University of Michigan.
- A couple of telecommunications / Internet maps in
National Geographic magazine, December 2001 (Vol. 200, No. 6), as part
of the article "The
Future is Calling", Thomas B. Allen. (One of the maps is
Map UK by Paul Buck and Karl Orbell.
provides detailed geographic data on Internet and telecommunications
network infrastructure in the USA.
a research project by Sean Gorman. The aim of the research is the study
of geographic aspects of complex networks, particularly the Internet.
- Lakhina, A., Byers, J.W., Crovella, M. and
Matta, I., 2002, "On
the Geographic Location of Internet Resources", Technical
Report 2002-15, May 2002, Computer Science Department, Boston
- Yook, S-H., Jeong, H. and Barabasi, A-L.,
the Internet's Large-Scale Topology", Technical Report
cond-mat/0107417, Condensed Matter Archive, xxx.lanl.gov, July 2001.
- Huffaker B., Fomenkov M., Plummer D., Moore
D. and Claffy K., 2002, "Distance
Metrics in the Internet", IEEE International
Telecommunications Symposium (ITS), 8-12th September 2002,
- 'Eyeballing' project pages showing the material
geography of US telecommunications infrastructure, byJohn Young at Cryptome. It is a nice
combination of public source maps and aerial photographs.
An ISP Topology Mapping Engine, Department of Computer
Science and Engineering, University of Washington. See their paper for
more details, Spring N., Mahajan R. and Wetherall D.,
ISP Topologies with Rocketfuel", SIGCOMM'02,
19-23rd August 2002, Pittsburgh.
is a directory service for relating web pages to geographical
locations, developed by Joshua Schachter. It enables you to find web
sites by geographic proximity. You are free to register your web site
with the service.
- Byers S. and Kormann D., 2003, "802.11b
Access Point Mapping", Communications of the ACM,
May, Vol. 46, No. 5, pages 41-46.
- The Geowanking
mailing list provides a very useful and active forum for
discussions on networked geographies issues.
- An interesting new 'open source' Internet network
mapping effort called the Opte
Project, directed by Barrett Lyon. It is taking a standard
approach of mass traceroutes to build up topology graphs. It was also
discussed in a Slashdot story, "Map
the Internet... In One Day?" November 14, 2003.
Atlas of Cyberspaces